What is an exosome?
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles ranging between 30-150 nm that are produced by virtually every cell type as a means of intercellular communication. They contain proteins (growth factors), mRNA (blueprint for protein production) and micro RNA (on/off switch for specific protein production), all contained within a membrane similar to their parent cells that protect exosomal proteins and RNA from degradation until they afre delivered to the target cell.
Does the parent cell type of the exosome matter?
Yes, the cargo of the exosome varies significantly according to the specific parent cell type. In this case, these MSC exosomes carry the developmental message of perinatal mesenchymal stem cells, which are progenitor cells of the connective tissue lineage, meaning that they are involved in development of tissues like skin, hair, bones, muscle and cartilage.
How does XoGlo® compare to amniotic fluid?
Amniotic fluid has a significantly different protein profile than XoGlo® and lacks key proteins like TGF-ß3, which is an important modulator of inflammation and immune function. Also, the exosomes present in amniotic fluid are primarily of maternal epithelial cell origin, which means that their cargo is substantially different than that of an MSC exosome.
How does XoGlo® compare to "stem cell" products often referred to an umbilical cord blood, Whaton's jelly or biologic allograft?
After thawing these frozen "stem cells" products, the viability of these allogeneic cells approaches zero, meaning that their effects are dependent on the growth factors and the low concentration of exosomes present in the product. Unlike XoGlo®, which has a very high concentration of MSC exosomes, these growth factors are not protected by the liposomal membrane.
How does XoGlo® compare to bone-marrow-derived exosome products?
Bone-marrow derived exosomes originate primarily from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) rather than mesenchymal stem cells, which are the source of the exosomes in XoGlo®. These HSCs are progenitor cells of the blood cell lineage, not the connective tissue lineage, and so their exosomal cargo is much different from that of MSC exosomes. The very low numbers of MSCs that are present in adult bone marrow also differ significantly from perinatal MSCs in their exosome production, because of the specific microenviroment in which these cells reside, as well as the age of the cells.